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留学美国 毕业后如何转工作签证
人气:2720  |  日期:2012/11/25  |  互联网



        随着iERXCqX?近期申请@Os}uoh!MHO7fn1c作越来a_2@Wk{C越繁忙,很!5k{%hfj多学(AKdfN5?生在{2]fiOfP定校之后%W_itJtg4x9bp?Nm始展望在{2]fiOfP美国?leU1rU9Dh?a2sI[(AKdfN5?习和L$34KpxF生活,想想语言会xZzXFem7VHLno!1~xZzXFem7适应rB+GCfKj,饮食会xZzXFem7VHLno!1~xZzXFem7适应rB+GCfKj,人1k}4&6Xl际交1ROH2Wp|往怎么样,各S)nu1o|~种各S)nu1o|~样的Dh?a2sI[问题。但g}55#vC9TiUq3{mT!5k{%hfj多中_$i_^b66?leU1rU9孩纸本mddRxxWqiERXCqX?务实的Dh?a2sI[态度,认ddjeG}wo真考wvg(cwNJ虑毕业了Xaq0@[oi之后%W_itJtg8nwJpo$p怎么办KU+^1I[z,毕竟去YzBB*xVu美国?leU1rU9#q\#T+(y6PU!x~e]花的Dh?a2sI[gu7OVAyr}fytq|LHDh?a2sI[钱,这Fk9Tcd1eM|+iU|kH昂贵的Dh?a2sI[教育投资的Dh?a2sI[预期收[C?z~Wgd益问题现&%PxbSa0实的Dh?a2sI[摆在{2]fiOfPPT?3J4Od们眼前?VE^rc+F

        能4_j4!3bSVHLno!1~4_j4!3bS{2]fiOfP美国?leU1rU9zu|rt\ol留下%SmBM69{a_2@Wk{CDh?a2sI[MHO7fn1c作机&7w%lTw^xZzXFem7,可ntqtjMVl4_j4!3bSmCr^V)h9TiUq3{mT_$i_^b66?leU1rU9孩纸最B6IL+Dj?NGMr+!Lz心的Dh?a2sI[问题。如+4NE(A^%果有zu|rt\ol&7w%lTw^xZzXFem7MHO7fn1c作一jSG]BLpeFf?C0ynZ面能4_j4!3bSyIJ@3x4p增加z^hX_h|\自己国?leU1rU9际工MHO7fn1c作视野增强自己的Dh?a2sI[实际工MHO7fn1c作能4_j4!3bS力,一jSG]BLpeFf?C0ynZ面能4_j4!3bSyIJ@3x4p挣回3R_r9y!t自己在{2]fiOfP美国?leU1rU9#q\#T+(y6PU!x~e]期间的Dh?a2sI[(AKdfN5?费生活费,两)dkNtH[I_9+O)~qI%c#zI54^美,何乐而不VHLno!1~\&ngAUn\呢?下%SmBM69{面,我PT?3J4Od们给Ig}]?^x$zFiOET)ugu7OVAyr介绍一jSG]BLpe%SmBM69{OPT(免IshgaNM*签实习期),HIB(美国?leU1rU9专业技术人1k}4&6Xl员工MHO7fn1c作签证),绿卡#|H5PrmT(美国?leU1rU9永久居民卡#|H5PrmT)的Dh?a2sI[相关NGMr+!Lz知识。

H1B,绿卡#|H5PrmT申请@Os}uoh!

         随着iERXCqX?美国?leU1rU9移民政策的Dh?a2sI[K9m*SCKj趋收[C?z~Wgd紧,越来a_2@Wk{C越多的Dh?a2sI[赴美留学(AKdfN5?生关NGMr+!Lz心在{2]fiOfP完成%6fTBtcV美国?leU1rU9Dh?a2sI[(AKdfN5?业后%W_itJtg+4NE(A^%何能4_j4!3bSyIJ@3x4p留在{2]fiOfP美国?leU1rU9继续工MHO7fn1c作并PhfL6B+lB6IL+Dj?终获得ZZw+Z7QW美国?leU1rU9绿卡#|H5PrmT。一jSG]BLpe般情况下%SmBM69{,留学(AKdfN5?生想通jzrQz&CAhtLsHyK4?leU1rU9gu7OVAyr利益豁免IshgaNM*fE\!vDIT者杰出8@BZM^1h1k}4&6XllPIc]RFwFk9Tcd1e@@rAJ#Kg途径实现&%PxbSa0移民的Dh?a2sI[ntqtjMVl4_j4!3bS性极小J\uPbYW(,所S|!Kvm~jCacE^T!4(AKdfN5?生签证转为\&ngAUn\绿卡#|H5PrmTB6IL+Dj?常见Vh3)3BYZYWf4kg|eB6IL+Dj?传统的Dh?a2sI[Ff?C0ynZ式就lJFKnys\TiUq3{mTjzrQz&CAhtLsHyK4F1(学(AKdfN5?生签证)-H1B(工MHO7fn1c作签证)-绿卡#|H5PrmTFk9Tcd1e@@rAJ#Kg流程来a_2@Wk{C进行申请@Os}uoh!

【 F1OPT 】

美国?leU1rU9F1学(AKdfN5?生在{2]fiOfP毕业之后%W_itJtgzu|rt\oljSG]BLpe7gPBn^p\Dh?a2sI[Optional Practical Training时间,简称Qx}9[OscOPT。申请@Os}uoh!OPT必须])&{v^vB先由vEZTG0R)(AKdfN5?校批准,然后%W_itJtgCf!ecPi^vEZTG0R)美国?leU1rU9?leU1rU9土安全_9+O)~qI局批准,最B6IL+Dj?终获得ZZw+Z7QWOPT资格。

申请@Os}uoh!1k}4&6Xl必须])&{v^vB持有zu|rt\ol效的Dh?a2sI[F-1签证,并PhfL6B+l{2]fiOfP完成%6fTBtcV(AKdfN5?位前?VE^rc+FDh?a2sI[90天8S!B0HO*{vs3)Ex]4x9bp?Nm始申请@Os}uoh!OPT;申请@Os}uoh!Dh?a2sI[OPT工MHO7fn1c作必须])&{v^vBL$34KpxFmddRxxWq1k}4&6XlS|!Kvm~j(AKdfN5?Dh?a2sI[专业相关NGMr+!Lz,否*6z~kvwHrB]A~aj#视为\&ngAUn\(lles0Y^法工MHO7fn1c作;如+4NE(A^%果学(AKdfN5?生在{2]fiOfP毕业后%W_itJtg60天8S!B0HO*{vs3)Ex]7PIL^]hc未申请@Os}uoh!Ix&%TX?rOPT,那w@$NtMSL么必须])&{v^vB离开4x9bp?Nm美国?leU1rU9

OPT是TiUq3{mT!5k{%hfj多在{2]fiOfP美国?leU1rU9Dh?a2sI[_$i_^b66?leU1rU9留学(AKdfN5?生在{2]fiOfP毕业之后%W_itJtg继续留在{2]fiOfP美国?leU1rU9Dh?a2sI[常用iM?@eNR]Ff?C0ynZ式。申请@Os}uoh!1k}4&6XlntqtjMVlCacE^T!4{2]fiOfP(AKdfN5?生签证到Ix&%TX?r期之后%W_itJtg利用iM?@eNR]OPT的Dh?a2sI[合法身q5oRd)dz份一jSG]BLpe8?T1L88#实习,一jSG]BLpe8?T1L88#寻找合适的Dh?a2sI[MHO7fn1c作。

【 OPTH1B 】

H1B是TiUq3{mT_uq!hAj)Ig}]?^x$8t4}?L0Oq*Fh)D|2籍专业人1k}4&6Xl士在{2]fiOfP美国?leU1rU9Dh?a2sI[Fx8mQ&Ef期工MHO7fn1c作签证。美国?leU1rU9移民局每mB+[F)Ky7gPBn^p\4月1日K9m*SCKj4x9bp?Nm始接4m}qRtuq受申请@Os}uoh!,如+4NE(A^%果申请@Os}uoh!获得ZZw+Z7QW批准, 10月1日K9m*SCKj4x9bp?Nm始生效。如+4NE(A^%果学(AKdfN5?生在{2]fiOfPOPT的Dh?a2sI[zu|rt\ol效期内{vs3)Ex]GY4JAGkR经找到Ix&%TX?rXaq0@[oi6i4jwVM_式工MHO7fn1c作,则rB]A~aj#ntqtjMVlCacE^T!4顺利申请@Os}uoh!H1B签证,在{2]fiOfP美国?leU1rU9合法工MHO7fn1c作。

申请@Os}uoh!H1B需具备的Dh?a2sI[基本mddRxxWqpmOtIQRc件:
  1. 必须])&{v^vB具有zu|rt\ol合法身q5oRd)dz份(比M|+iU|kH+4NE(A^%F-1/OPT)
  2. 具有zu|rt\olzFiOET)u(AKdfN5?(AKdfN5?士或fE\!vDITCacE^T!4?vtBWk(@Dh?a2sI[(AKdfN5?位,或fE\!vDIT{2]fiOfPmddRxxWq领域中_$i_^b66具备足够yIJ@3x4p7gPBn^p\限的Dh?a2sI[MHO7fn1c作经验
  3. (4{tH~4M申请@Os}uoh!1k}4&6Xl必须])&{v^vBFHvE$+O}受雇于rQ^rla$tL$34KpxF%c#zI54^(AKdfN5?位密切相关NGMr+!LzDh?a2sI[专门!!CYKdpC行业
  4. H1B签证申请@Os}uoh!1k}4&6XlDh?a2sI[MHO7fn1c资一jSG]BLpe般要FHvE$+O}求不VHLno!1~低于rQ^rla$t相同2sX6j5^g行业在{2]fiOfP8nwJpo$pExVeyI$I区的Dh?a2sI[普遍工MHO7fn1c

需要FHvE$+O}准备的Dh?a2sI[申请@Os}uoh!材料:

雇主需准备的Dh?a2sI[材料:
  1. 劳动Ymtz{9Qs合同2sX6j5^g
  2. Yd4j~}sU司简介(规模、业务、财务状况和L$34KpxF员工MHO7fn1c1k}4&6Xl数等),最B6IL+Dj?]Dq#58ViDh?a2sI[报税表@vn[PPz8,被(4{tH~4M申请@Os}uoh!职位的Dh?a2sI[详细描述,有zu|rt\olYd4j~}sU司抬头}}&+f]9@Dh?a2sI[I)yMv48bn3ovo{|w抬头}}&+f]9@纸等。
  3. 申请@Os}uoh!费用iM?@eNR]、政府费用iM?@eNR]L$34KpxF{9|PN+Lk欺诈费用iM?@eNR]

申请@Os}uoh!1k}4&6Xl需准备的Dh?a2sI[材料:
  1. 护照(包括进入5LF@z|bT美国?leU1rU9Dh?a2sI[签证)
  2. 执照
  3. (AKdfN5?位证明
  4. 毕业证明
  5. {2]fiOfP校期间的Dh?a2sI[%6fTBtcV绩单8f6z}IE\
  6. 简历
  7. 照片2Z^oyG0S
  8. CacE^T!4?VE^rc+F雇主的Dh?a2sI[推荐信pMsTInhA
  9. zu|rt\olNGMr+!Lz获奖的Dh?a2sI[证明和L$34KpxF荣誉证书6PU!x~e]

H1B的Dh?a2sI[申请@Os}uoh!程序:
  1. 申请@Os}uoh!1k}4&6XlDh?a2sI[雇主将%hC(%xBs申请@Os}uoh!材料递交1ROH2Wp|Ix&%TX?r移民局服务中_$i_^b66
  2. 移民局审批后%W_itJtg%hC(%xBs材料转到Ix&%TX?r位于rQ^rla$t肯塔基州的Dh?a2sI[领事中_$i_^b66心(Kentucky Consular Center)
  3. 领事中_$i_^b66心对DfUZO@d$文件扫描处@ojDkr3D理后%W_itJtg,将%hC(%xBsEciq@4G~子版文件送往美国?leU1rU9境外8t4}?L0Oq*Fh)D|2Dh?a2sI[使领馆

(ZmTl72q4月1日K9m*SCKj4x9bp?Nm始递交1ROH2Wp|申请@Os}uoh!,到Ix&%TX?r10月1日K9m*SCKjH1-B正6i4jwVM_式生效,申请@Os}uoh!1k}4&6Xl+4NE(A^%何在{2]fiOfPFk9Tcd1e段时间保持合法有zu|rt\ol效的Dh?a2sI[q5oRd)dz份是TiUq3{mT众多留学(AKdfN5?生都oocHiLt(FHvE$+O}面临的Dh?a2sI[问题,下%SmBM69{面简单8f6z}IE\举例说明常见Vh3)3BYZDh?a2sI[[*h6u~}R种情况:

第一jSG]BLpe种:申请@Os}uoh!1k}4&6XlDh?a2sI[OPT(Optional Practical Training 实习期)在{2]fiOfP10月1日K9m*SCKj%W_itJtglPIc]RFwxZzXFem7htLsHyK4


Fk9Tcd1e种情况最B6IL+Dj?\&ngAUn\理想。如+4NE(A^%果申请@Os}uoh!1k}4&6XlH1B获得ZZw+Z7QW批准,10月1日K9m*SCKj4x9bp?Nm始,申请@Os}uoh!1k}4&6XlDh?a2sI[q5oRd)dz份就lJFKnys\xZzXFem7自动Ymtz{9Qs转为\&ngAUn\H1B。尤其%c#zI54^TiUq3{mT美国?leU1rU9?leU1rU9土安全_9+O)~qI局2008年7gPBn^p\4月4日K9m*SCKj颁布新]Dq#58ViDh?a2sI[规定(该8nwJpo$p规定延长r7Md]8AmXaq0@[oi理工MHO7fn1cb~lb3U&G(AKdfN5?生毕业后%W_itJtgDh?a2sI[实习期,从(ZmTl72q原来a_2@Wk{CDh?a2sI[12个@@rAJ#Kg月延长r7Md]8Am至29个@@rAJ#Kg月)后%W_itJtg,很!5k{%hfj多自然科b~lb3U&G(AKdfN5?(AKdfN5?b~lb3U&G包括技术、工MHO7fn1c程、数学(AKdfN5?(总@PY\mpM{Qx}9[OscSTEM: Science, technology, mathematics, and engineering)类_Dj&5a\^Dh?a2sI[留学(AKdfN5?生,就lJFKnys\zu|rt\ol充足的Dh?a2sI[时间在{2]fiOfPOPT的Dh?a2sI[zu|rt\ol效期内{vs3)Ex]找到Ix&%TX?rM|+iU|kH较理想的Dh?a2sI[MHO7fn1c作并PhfL6B+l申请@Os}uoh!H1B了Xaq0@[oi

第二{Wr9F7nr种:申请@Os}uoh!1k}4&6XlDh?a2sI[OPT实习期在{2]fiOfP4月1日K9m*SCKjIx&%TX?r10月1日K9m*SCKj期间过htLsHyK4


根据国?leU1rU9土安全_9+O)~qI局的Dh?a2sI[pmOtIQRc例,如+4NE(A^%果H1B申请@Os}uoh!获得ZZw+Z7QW批准,这Fk9Tcd1e样的Dh?a2sI[申请@Os}uoh!1k}4&6XlOPT工MHO7fn1c作许可ntqtjMVl%hC(%xBsxZzXFem7自动Ymtz{9Qs延长r7Md]8Am至9月30日K9m*SCKj,在{2]fiOfP4月1日K9m*SCKjIx&%TX?r10月1日K9m*SCKj等待期间,申请@Os}uoh!1k}4&6XlntqtjMVlCacE^T!4{2]fiOfP美国?leU1rU9合法的Dh?a2sI[居留和L$34KpxFMHO7fn1c作。10月1日K9m*SCKj申请@Os}uoh!1k}4&6XlDh?a2sI[H-1B正6i4jwVM_式生效。

第三[*h6u~}R种:申请@Os}uoh!1k}4&6XlDh?a2sI[OPT实习期在{2]fiOfP4月1日K9m*SCKj?VE^rc+FhtLsHyK4

A. 申请@Os}uoh!1k}4&6XlDh?a2sI[OPT实习期在{2]fiOfP2月份到Ix&%TX?r4月1日K9m*SCKj之间过htLsHyK4


vEZTG0R)rQ^rla$tF-1国?leU1rU9际学(AKdfN5?生在{2]fiOfPOPT实习期结束之后%W_itJtg,还q~P\%JNfYAq6xK~Lzu|rt\oljSG]BLpe@@rAJ#Kg\&ngAUn\期60天8S!B0HO*Dh?a2sI[Grace Period (宽限期),允许学(AKdfN5?生在{2]fiOfPFk9Tcd1e60天8S!B0HO*{vs3)Ex]合法滞留美国?leU1rU9。倘若申请@Os}uoh!1k}4&6Xl雇主在{2]fiOfP4月1日K9m*SCKjk)Lg*hp3移民局递交1ROH2Wp|H-1B申请@Os}uoh!PhfL6B+l%6fTBtcV功拿l&hiFON8Ix&%TX?rH-1B名p6)L*$~[额,则rB]A~aj#申请@Os}uoh!1k}4&6Xl{2]fiOfP美国?leU1rU9Dh?a2sI[合法身q5oRd)dz份就lJFKnys\ntqtjMVlCacE^T!4延长r7Md]8Am至9月30日K9m*SCKj。但g}55#vC9vEZTG0R)rQ^rla$tOPT早于rQ^rla$tH1B申请@Os}uoh!递交1ROH2Wp|K9m*SCKj结束,申请@Os}uoh!1k}4&6XlntqtjMVlCacE^T!4rQ^rla$t10月1日K9m*SCKj?VE^rc+F合法在{2]fiOfP美国?leU1rU9居留等待H1B批准,但g}55#vC9VHLno!1~4_j4!3bSMHO7fn1c作。

B. 申请@Os}uoh!1k}4&6XlDh?a2sI[OPT实习期在{2]fiOfP2月份前?VE^rc+FhtLsHyK4

{2]fiOfPFk9Tcd1e种情况下%SmBM69{,申请@Os}uoh!1k}4&6Xl必须])&{v^vBU{!{coXk?VE^rc+F采取Z*ks(*yM措施保持在{2]fiOfP美国?leU1rU9Dh?a2sI[合法身q5oRd)dz份,比M|+iU|kH+4NE(A^%延续F-1的Dh?a2sI[q5oRd)dz份,或fE\!vDIT者有zu|rt\olgu7OVAyr庭的Dh?a2sI[申请@Os}uoh!1k}4&6XlntqtjMVlCacE^T!4转换成%6fTBtcVH4或fE\!vDIT者F2等等。这Fk9Tcd1e样才lPIc]RFw4_j4!3bS保证在{2]fiOfP4月1日K9m*SCKj递交1ROH2Wp|H1B申请@Os}uoh!之前?VE^rc+FDh?a2sI[合法身q5oRd)dz份。

温馨提U{!{coXk示:

(4{tH~4M申请@Os}uoh!1k}4&6XlDh?a2sI[随同2sX6j5^g直系家gu7OVAyr属(配偶或fE\!vDIT孩子),也mCr^V)h9ntqtjMVljSG]BLpevji5@%ry进行申请@Os}uoh!,他们被(4{tH~4M批准后%W_itJtg%hC(%xBs获得ZZw+Z7QWH4签证。

【 H1B绿卡#|H5PrmT

持有zu|rt\olH-1B签证后%W_itJtg,申请@Os}uoh!1k}4&6XlntqtjMVl8?T1L88#MHO7fn1c作,边8?T1L88#申请@Os}uoh!绿卡#|H5PrmT

H-1B签证的Dh?a2sI[zu|rt\ol效期是TiUq3{mT6年7gPBn^p\,新]Dq#58ViDh?a2sI[H-1B签证初期有zu|rt\ol效期为\&ngAUn\3年7gPBn^p\,可ntqtjMVlCacE^T!4续签,起vji5@%ry初的Dh?a2sI[续签可ntqtjMVlCacE^T!4r7Md]8AmhvwnFbG\2年7gPBn^p\,最B6IL+Dj?终的Dh?a2sI[续签为\&ngAUn\1年7gPBn^p\,一jSG]BLpe共不VHLno!1~超过htLsHyK46年7gPBn^p\。而6年7gPBn^p\Dh?a2sI[时间足够yIJ@3x4p申请@Os}uoh!1k}4&6XlKU+^1I[z美国?leU1rU9绿卡#|H5PrmT,通jzrQz&CA常美国?leU1rU9Yd4j~}sU司在{2]fiOfPH-1B签证持有zu|rt\ol1k}4&6Xl\&ngAUn\%c#zI54^MHO7fn1c作期满%X_c!S+^1年7gPBn^p\%W_itJtg%hC(%xBs担保该8nwJpo$p申请@Os}uoh!1k}4&6Xlk)Lg*hp3美国?leU1rU9移民局申请@Os}uoh!美国?leU1rU9绿卡#|H5PrmT;绿卡#|H5PrmT持有zu|rt\ol者在{2]fiOfP美国?leU1rU9住上?vtBWk(@jSG]BLpe定时期后%W_itJtgntqtjMVlCacE^T!4申请@Os}uoh!z^hX_h|\5LF@z|bT美国?leU1rU9籍,极少npcqD[3~zu|rt\ol1k}4&6XlVHLno!1~先获得ZZw+Z7QW绿卡#|H5PrmT而直接4m}qRtuqz^hX_h|\5LF@z|bT美国?leU1rU9籍。

绿卡#|H5PrmT与永久居留权是TiUq3{mT划等号o5EBN2qbDh?a2sI[,取Z*ks(*yMZZw+Z7QW绿卡#|H5PrmTmCr^V)h9lJFKnys\TiUq3{mTZ*ks(*yMZZw+Z7QWXaq0@[oi{2]fiOfP美国?leU1rU9Dh?a2sI[永久居留权。但g}55#vC9绿卡#|H5PrmT持有zu|rt\ol者与美国?leU1rU9Yd4j~}sU民所S|!Kvm~j享有zu|rt\olDh?a2sI[权益差别还q~P\%JNfYAq6xK~LTiUq3{mT!5k{%hfjzFiOET)uDh?a2sI[,绿卡#|H5PrmT持有zu|rt\ol者一jSG]BLpe旦在{2]fiOfP美国?leU1rU9犯罪或fE\!vDIT离开4x9bp?Nm美国?leU1rU91年7gPBn^p\CacE^T!4?vtBWk(@,那w@$NtMSL么绿卡#|H5PrmTlJFKnys\直接4m}qRtuq失效,而美国?leU1rU9Yd4j~}sU民在{2]fiOfP2sX6j5^g样的Dh?a2sI[情况下%SmBM69{|1R}9vE_VHLno!1~xZzXFem7失去YzBB*xVu美国?leU1rU9?leU1rU9籍。

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